Periodontics is the specialized field of dentistry that focuses on the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases that affect the supporting structures of teeth (gums, bone, and connective tissues). It plays a critical role in maintaining oral health by addressing conditions such as gingivitis and periodontitis. These dental conditions can lead to gum inflammation, tissue damage, tooth mobility, and even tooth loss if left untreated.

Through advanced diagnostics, personalized treatment plans, and a commitment to your well-being, our team at Washington Dental in Lomita stands ready to partner with you in your pursuit of optimal oral health. We can help you pave the way for a strong and vibrant smile.

Understanding Periodontics

Gingivitis is the initial stage of periodontal disease and is characterized by inflammation of the gums. It's often triggered by poor oral hygiene practices, allowing plaque to accumulate along the gumline. Common signs include redness, swelling, and bleeding of the gums during brushing or flossing. Fortunately, gingivitis is reversible with timely intervention, improved oral hygiene, and professional cleaning by a dentist or dental hygienist.

If gingivitis remains untreated, it can progress to a more severe condition known as periodontitis. This stage involves the infection of the pockets between the teeth and gums, leading to the breakdown of the supporting structures. As the disease advances, the gums recede, creating deeper pockets that trap bacteria and plaque. Over time, the bone that supports the teeth can also be compromised, resulting in tooth mobility and potential tooth loss.

Symptoms of Periodontitis

Below are some of the common symptoms associated with periodontitis:

Gum Inflammation and Bleeding

One of the earliest signs of periodontitis is persistent gum inflammation. Gums may appear red, swollen, and tender to the touch. Bleeding during brushing, flossing, or even eating can occur. While minor bleeding might be brushed off as a temporary issue, it's a key indicator of underlying gum disease.

Receding Gums

As periodontitis progresses, the gumline can start to recede, exposing more of the tooth's surface. This can give the teeth an elongated appearance and create pockets or gaps between the teeth and gums. These pockets provide a sheltered environment for bacteria to thrive and can lead to further infection and damage.

Tooth Sensitivity

Increased tooth sensitivity to hot, cold, sweet, or sour foods and beverages can be a symptom of periodontitis. As the gums recede and the protective enamel is compromised, the underlying dentin becomes more exposed, making the teeth sensitive to various stimuli.

Bad Breath (Halitosis)

Persistent bad breath that isn't alleviated by regular brushing, flossing, or using mouthwash could be an indication of periodontal disease. The odor is often a result of bacteria accumulating in the pockets formed between the teeth and gums.

Pus or Discharge

In advanced stages of periodontitis, you might notice pus or discharge around the gumline. This can indicate an active infection and should be addressed promptly by a dental professional.

Changes in Tooth Alignment and Bite

As periodontitis advances and bone loss occurs, teeth can shift position, leading to changes in your bite alignment. You might notice your teeth fitting together differently or feeling loose.

Tooth Mobility and Tooth Loss

Severe periodontitis can result in tooth mobility and, ultimately, tooth loss. The destruction of the supporting structures compromises the stability of the teeth, making them feel loose or wobbly.

Pain and Discomfort

In some cases, periodontitis can cause pain or discomfort, particularly when chewing or applying pressure to the affected area.

Gum Abscesses

A gum abscess, characterized by a localized collection of pus within the gums, can develop as a result of advanced periodontitis. It can be accompanied by pain, swelling, and a feeling of fullness in the affected area.

Generalized Malaise

Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition that can impact overall well-being. Some individuals might experience fatigue or a general sense of malaise due to the body's response to the infection.

Risk Factors and Causes for Periodontal Conditions

While periodontitis can affect anyone, certain risk factors increase the likelihood of its development and severity. Understanding these risk factors is key to taking proactive measures to prevent and manage periodontal conditions effectively.

Poor Oral Hygiene Practices

Insufficient or improper oral hygiene routines are perhaps the most prominent risk factors for periodontitis. Inadequate brushing, infrequent flossing, and neglecting regular dental check-ups create an environment conducive to the buildup of plaque and tartar along the gumline. This accumulation of bacteria-laden deposits initiates the inflammatory response that characterizes periodontal diseases.

Smoking and Tobacco Use

Tobacco use is a significant risk factor for periodontitis. Smoking weakens the immune system's response to infections, making it harder for your body to combat the bacteria-causing gum diseases. Additionally, smoking constricts blood vessels, reducing the flow of nutrients and oxygen to the gums and impeding their ability to heal.

Genetic Predisposition

Genetics can play a role in determining your susceptibility to periodontal conditions. Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition that makes them more prone to severe gum diseases. If you have a family history of periodontitis, it's crucial to be particularly vigilant about your oral hygiene practices and regular dental visits.

Systemic Health Connections

Certain medical conditions can increase the risk of developing periodontal conditions. Diabetes, for example, reduces the body's ability to fight infections, including those affecting the gums. Conditions that compromise the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS, also heighten the risk. Moreover, hormonal changes associated with pregnancy and certain medications can make gums more sensitive and susceptible to inflammation.

Poor Nutrition and Obesity

A diet lacking essential nutrients, particularly vitamin C, can weaken the immune system's ability to combat infections, including those affecting the gums. Additionally, obesity has been linked to an increased risk of periodontitis. Maintaining a healthy weight and consuming a balanced diet rich in vitamins and minerals can support your body's defenses against gum diseases.


Chronic stress can negatively impact the immune system, making it harder for your body to fight off infections, including those affecting the gums. Stress might also lead to behaviors like teeth grinding or clenching, which can exacerbate gum issues.


As we age, our risk of developing periodontitis increases. The cumulative effect of years of exposure to potential risk factors and natural wear and tear on the gums and bones that support the teeth contributes to the higher prevalence of gum diseases in older individuals.

The Stages of Periodontitis

Periodontitis progresses through distinct stages, each marked by varying degrees of tissue damage and potential complications. These stages include:

Stage One — Gingivitis

The journey into periodontitis often begins with gingivitis. Gingivitis is the earliest stage of gum disease and is characterized by red, swollen, and easily bleeding gums. It's primarily caused by the accumulation of plaque – a sticky film of bacteria – on the teeth and gums. Gingivitis is usually reversible with improved oral hygiene practices, professional dental cleanings, and regular check-ups.

Stage Two — Early Periodontitis

If gingivitis is left untreated, it can progress to early periodontitis. At this stage, the inflammation extends deeper into the supporting structures of the teeth, including the bone. The gums may begin to recede, creating pockets between the teeth and gums. These pockets provide a conducive environment for bacteria to thrive, leading to further inflammation and infection. You might experience mild discomfort, sensitivity, or minor changes in your bite alignment.

Stage Three — Moderate Periodontitis

As periodontitis progresses to the moderate stage, the damage becomes more pronounced. The pockets between the teeth and gums deepen, allowing bacteria to invade further. Bone loss becomes more evident, and the teeth might feel slightly loose. Receding gums can expose more of the tooth's surface, leading to increased tooth sensitivity.

Stage Four — Advanced Periodontitis

In the advanced stage of periodontitis, the damage becomes severe. The supporting bone and connective tissues continue to deteriorate, and the pockets deepen even further. Teeth may become significantly mobile or loose, affecting your ability to bite and chew. Abscesses or pus-filled sacs might form, leading to pain and discomfort. Tooth loss becomes a real risk as the supporting structures weaken.

Stage Five — Severe Periodontitis

Severe periodontitis represents the most advanced and critical stage of the disease. By this point, the damage is extensive, and tooth mobility is severe. Pockets are deep, gum recession is significant, and bone loss is considerable. Tooth loss is highly likely if prompt and intensive intervention is not undertaken.

How is Periodontitis Diagnosed?

The process of diagnosing periodontitis and understanding the tools and techniques that dental professionals employ to unveil the health of your gums.

Thorough Clinical Examination

The journey to diagnosing periodontitis begins with a comprehensive clinical examination. Skilled dental professionals evaluate the health of your gums, teeth, and supporting structures. This examination includes assessing factors like redness, swelling, bleeding, and recession of the gums, as well as the presence of pockets between the teeth and gums.

Periodontal Probing

Periodontal probing is a crucial aspect of diagnosing periodontitis. Using a small measuring instrument, your dentist or periodontist gently measures the depth of the pockets between your teeth and gums. Deeper pockets can indicate the presence and severity of gum disease. These measurements serve as a baseline for monitoring changes over time.

Dental X-rays and Imaging

Dental X-rays are essential tools in diagnosing periodontitis. X-rays reveal the extent of bone loss, which is a hallmark of advanced gum disease. Dental professionals might use digital radiography, panoramic X-rays, or cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to capture detailed images of your teeth, gums, and bone structures.

Assessment of Mobility and Bite Changes

Evaluating tooth mobility and changes in your bite alignment can provide insights into the progression of periodontitis. Loosening of teeth and alterations in how your teeth fit together might indicate advanced stages of the disease.

Visual and Photographic Documentation

Photographic documentation is a valuable tool for tracking changes in your gums and teeth over time. Images can help dental professionals communicate the diagnosis and treatment plan more effectively and serve as a reference for monitoring progress.

Microbiological Testing

In some cases, microbiological testing may be employed to identify specific bacteria in the oral cavity. Certain bacteria are associated with the development and progression of periodontitis. This information can guide treatment decisions and provide a deeper understanding of your risk factors.

Comprehensive Assessment and Treatment Plan

Based on the findings of these diagnostic methods, dental professionals develop a comprehensive assessment and treatment plan tailored to your specific needs. The severity of periodontitis is often categorized into different stages, which guides the choice of treatment and frequency of follow-up visits.

Periodontal Treatment

Periodontal treatment offers a range of solutions to combat gum disease and restore oral health. However, periodontal treatment is not a one-size-fits-all approach. Each individual's gum health is unique, influenced by factors like genetics, lifestyle, and the severity of the disease. A comprehensive examination by a periodontist, a dental specialist trained in gum health, is the first step in developing a personalized treatment plan.

Understanding Surgical Periodontal Therapy

Surgical periodontal therapy is a specialized approach designed to manage moderate to severe cases of gum disease that have progressed beyond the scope of non-surgical treatments. This method employs surgical procedures to access and thoroughly treat the affected areas, promoting healing and preventing further damage to the supporting structures of the teeth.

The common surgical procedures include:

  • Flap Surgery (Pocket Reduction Surgery) — Flap surgery is a pivotal surgical procedure used to treat advanced periodontitis. During this procedure, the periodontist creates a small flap in the gum tissue to access and clean the root surfaces and remove plaque, tartar, and infected tissue from deep within the pockets that have formed between the teeth and gums. Once the area is thoroughly cleaned, the flap is repositioned and sutured, creating a snug fit that reduces the depth of the pockets and facilitates the healing process.
  • Bone Grafting — Bone grafting is often employed in cases where gum disease has led to significant bone loss around the teeth. During this procedure, the periodontist adds bone graft material to the affected area. This material can be sourced from your body, a tissue bank, or synthetic alternatives. Bone grafting aims to stimulate new bone growth, restore lost bone tissue, and provide a stable foundation for the teeth.
  • Soft Tissue Grafting — Gum recession is a common consequence of advanced gum disease. Soft tissue grafting involves taking tissue from another area of your mouth – or using a donor source – and grafting it onto the receded gums. This procedure not only enhances the aesthetics of your smile but also helps protect the exposed tooth roots and reduce sensitivity.
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) GTR is a sophisticated surgical technique to regenerate lost bone and tissue. A barrier membrane is placed between the gum tissue and bone, preventing the gum tissue from invading the healing bone space. This allows bone cells to grow and regenerate, restoring the health of the supporting structures.
  • Crown Lengthening — Crown lengthening is a procedure often performed to expose more of the tooth structure when teeth are covered by excess gum tissue. It can also be necessary for restorative purposes, such as placing dental crowns.

Benefits of Surgical Periodontal Therapy

Below are some of the common benefits of surgical periodontal therapy:

  • Targeted Treatment Surgical periodontal therapy allows for precise access to deep-seated infection and damage, ensuring a thorough and effective treatment.
  • Restoration of Support — Surgical interventions can halt the progression of gum disease, prevent further bone loss, and restore the stability of the teeth.
  • Aesthetic Enhancement — Procedures like soft tissue grafting and crown lengthening can improve the appearance of the smile by addressing gum recession and excess tissue.
  • Long-Term Success — Surgical therapy can provide lasting results when combined with proper post-operative care and maintenance.
  • Customization — Surgical procedures are tailored to the individual's needs, ensuring that the treatment plan addresses their unique situation.

Understanding Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy

Non-surgical periodontal therapy is a proactive approach aimed at treating mild to moderate cases of gum disease without resorting to invasive surgical procedures. This therapy primarily involves two key techniques: scaling and root planing. It is often the initial step in managing gum disease, halting its progression, and preventing further damage to the supporting structures of the teeth.

  • Scaling Scaling is the meticulous process of removing plaque, tartar, and bacterial deposits from the surfaces of the teeth and beneath the gum line. Dental professionals use specialized tools to carefully scrape away these accumulations, effectively eliminating the sources of infection. This process reduces inflammation and creates a clean environment that promotes healing.
  • Root Planing Root planing follows scaling and involves smoothing the root surfaces of the teeth. This step is crucial in preventing the reattachment of bacteria and plaque to the treated areas. By creating a smooth surface, root planing helps the gums reattach to the teeth more securely, reducing the depth of the pockets between the teeth and gums.

The Procedure

Non-surgical periodontal therapy typically requires multiple appointments, with different quadrants of the mouth treated during each session to ensure thoroughness and patient comfort. Local anesthesia may be administered to numb the area and minimize discomfort during the procedure. The process involves a combination of manual and ultrasonic instruments to remove deposits and promote a clean and healthy oral environment.

Benefits of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy

Non-surgical periodontal therapy offers numerous advantages, making it a preferred choice for many individuals:

  • Minimally Invasive — Unlike surgical procedures, non-surgical therapy does not require incisions or sutures, resulting in less discomfort and a faster recovery.
  • Cost-Effective Non-surgical therapy is often more affordable than surgical alternatives, making it accessible to a broader range of patients.
  • Early Intervention Non-surgical therapy is effective in addressing mild to moderate cases of gum disease, preventing further progression and potential complications.
  • Reduced Risk of Infection — By eliminating the source of infection, non-surgical therapy significantly reduces the risk of systemic health issues associated with gum disease.
  • Improved Aesthetic — The removal of bacterial deposits can lead to fresher breath and a brighter smile, enhancing overall oral hygiene.
  • Maintenance of Natural Teeth — Non-surgical therapy aims to save and maintain your natural teeth by preventing tooth loss caused by advanced gum disease.

Periodontal Maintenance

After undergoing periodontal treatment to address gum disease, the journey toward optimal oral health continues with a critical phase: periodontal maintenance and follow-up care. This phase plays a pivotal role in preserving the results of treatment, preventing recurrence, and ensuring the long-term health of your gums.

Periodontal maintenance involves:

Thorough Assessment

During each periodontal maintenance visit, your dental team evaluates the state of your gum health. This involves measuring the depth of gum pockets, checking for signs of inflammation, and assessing any changes since your last appointment.

Professional Cleaning

Dental professionals perform a meticulous cleaning of your teeth and gum pockets, removing any plaque, tartar, or bacterial deposits that may have accumulated. This cleaning goes beyond what can be achieved through regular brushing and flossing, ensuring a clean slate for your oral health.

Personalized Oral Hygiene Guidance

Periodontal maintenance appointments are an opportunity to receive tailored guidance on effective oral hygiene practices. Dental professionals provide insights into proper brushing techniques, appropriate flossing methods, and recommendations for using antimicrobial mouthwashes to maintain gum health.

Addressing Concerns

If any issues or areas of concern are identified during the appointment, dental professionals can address them promptly. This might involve discussing changes in your oral care routine, recommending additional treatments, or providing solutions for specific challenges you might be facing.

Monitoring Healing

If you've undergone surgical periodontal procedures, periodontal maintenance visits are crucial for monitoring the healing process. Dental professionals track the progress of your healing and make any necessary adjustments to your treatment plan.

Reinforcing Preventive Measures

Dental professionals emphasize the importance of lifestyle choices that contribute to gum health, such as avoiding tobacco use, maintaining a balanced diet, and managing systemic health conditions that can impact your oral well-being.

Find a Periodontist Near Me

Whether you're looking for routine check-ups, preventive care, or advanced periodontal treatments, look no further than Washington Dental in Lomita. With a dedication to both general dentistry and specialized periodontics, we offer a unique and holistic approach to maintaining oral health. Call us today at 310-326-5183 to book an appointment.